2010 - AS-DER publications
WHY PROFESSIONAL ARMY?
In contemplating the military service system, first the security of the State against the foreign threats and the demands of citizens, as the second priority, must be taken into account.
PROFESSIONAL MILITARY SERVICE:
Professional army is the name of the army system consisting of the persons who preferred army through their own will and adopted such duty in exchange of some particular remuneration and in which other citizens are not required to perform compulsory army service.
Drawbacks of the professionalization of our army completely for our Country:
The above-mentioned reasons invoke the idea that the transition to a professional military service system is a requirement in some circles. This idea is expanding and bringing our Country to the state of professional army. In discussing about the issue, following drawbacks, costs, and assessments must not be overlooked.
a- It is not possible to make the entire Campaign Staff professional. (1,5-2 million)
b- If there is not compulsory military service, it will not possible to complete the entire campaign staffs in the case of a campaign and attempt will be made to fulfill the requirements with a very short period of training after the announcement of mobilization. It is not possible to meet the requirements of a war with the troops without training. In the troops to be consisted of collection-gathering personnel, the spirit of unity would not be developed as well. Hence, the power of battle weakens. In professional armies, imperialist duties have been performed and there are no examples when it comes to defending a nation.
c- In the Armed Forces, the professional personnel in the sufficiently different statuses are already present (officer- petty officer, whether acting as a staff or not, officer-general, soldier-civilian clerk, specialized sergeant etc.). There is a competition for status even among them. In addition, the contracted specialized sergeants who will increase the polarizations within a troop.
d- Military service requires physical competence particularly in the land combatant troops. The specialized sergeant positions turn into a Janissary Guild as long as they become older. The army becomes a storehouse of the personnel interrupting their duties, ranging from the people involved with trade to those who lose their physical competence.
e- While the military service is an obligation for the citizens, it is, at the same time, a right. When it comes to the periods ideology surpasses competence in the recruitment of personnel, Armed Forces become no longer the armed force of the Nation and turn into a power that serves for groups and ideologies. The YAŞ victims know most the pain of being deprived of fulfilling their Military service duty. Entry of those people who are not suitable for the ideology of the people having the opportunity of personnel recruitment in the Armed Forces to the professional staffing is prevented but they might assume the defense of the country as an obligor within the Armed Forces. According to the belief of Islam, 15-month military service performed with pure intention and suitable manner provides the good deeds of day-night 1500 years of supererogatory prayer. This is an indispensible right for the people with belief. It cannot even be compared with the hardship of obligation.
f- Initially, the positions can be downsized and rendered cores. However, it must be considered certain that the core positions will be insufficient in the course of time. Present peace positions are already the minimal sufficient amount for providing the services. That is to say, professional positions must be in the number of the present peace positions of our armed forces. This means that the personnel costs will be minimum 18-20 Billion TL per annum. That is to say, in a professional army, only the personnel expenses are more than MSB’s 2010 budget (2010 budget is 15,118 Billion TL). For the modernization and operating costs of the Armed Forces, same amount of resources will also be needed. We will render the personnel professional but either the positions will remain vacant or the professional personnel will be performing their duties with the old fashioned and inactive arms and equipment. Or the defense budget must be doubled at least.
g- The critical crew of the very technical and modern arms (aircrafts, shooting control systems of ships, shooting control systems of tanks, shooters of rocket systems etc.) as well as the personnel of the private operation teams can consist of professional soldiers. Presently, nearly 90% of such personnel are already professional.
h- Domestic security operation and fight against terror are a special state. In fact, for such a fight, there are private operation teams acting under the Private Forces Command. It is sufficient to increase the amount and staffing of such troops temporarily to the extent that it will be sufficient for the requirements of the operation. Subsequent to the completion of the service, the staffing can be downsized as needed.
WHAT KIND OF MILITARY SERVICE SYSTEM MUST BE APPLIED IN THE TURKISH ARMED FORCES?
The duty of TSK must be re-determined. Above all, the task of the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) must be redefined. The task 1 charged by the Domestic Service Act's 35th article to TSK must be amended.
Our Armed Forces must be charged with ;
* Supporting the national policies determined to attain the national targets;
* Discouraging the armed offenses that might come against our country from outside the borders;
* Preventing an offense outside the border before it takes place; and
* Defending our country in line with the all-out defense principle when necessary
The duty of the domestic security and fight against terror must be taken from TSK and given to the Ministry of Interior Affairs. In the case of charging such a task, with exclusion of domestic security and fight against terror from the area of responsibility of the Armed Forces, TSK will be required to provide defense services only against the foreign threats. Domestic security and fight against terror must be left to the responsibility of the Ministry of Interior Affairs completely. The organic ties of the Gendarme General Command with the General Staff Presidency must be detached and it must be rendered a security force consisting of the professional personnel acting under the Ministry of Interior Affairs in all aspects. For this purpose, troops and professional contracted commander brigades trained for domestic security and created within the Armed Forces must be connected to the Gendarme General Command in line with the principle of volunteerism. This way, there will be the opportunity ensured to provide the fight against terror and domestic security operation through the trained professional security forces within our borders.
The duty of fight against the foreign armed support and connections of terror must be assigned to the Armed Forces. The most suitable troop for such duty is the General Staff Private Forces Command. By giving sufficient number of commanders Private, airborne, helicopter troops and air forces to the Forces Command, it must be rendered entirely professional. This Force organized in the size of a corps must be deployed at the borders of the neighboring countries providing bases and supports to terror in our Country and the cross border terrorists bases and facilities must be assigned as targets. The troops equipped and trained for the low level clashes must be ready as of the periods of peace. In order to be used against the threats that might develop suddenly from outside the borders, nine Corps for the East and Southeast Anatolia and five Corps for the Western Anatolia and Thrace must be rendered professional with armored, mechanized, commander, and main airborne brigades in their foundation. In addition, four Corps must be made professional in the center in accordance with our national foreign policies, to support the cross border amicable and allied countries and conduct joint operation. Marine and Air Forces must be professionalized along with all their elements. For all-out defense, compulsory military service is required.
The geopolitical position of our Country requires readiness for an all-out war. Hence, compulsory military service must continue but the compulsory service in the periods of peace must be training oriented and while the professionally staffed troops are kept ready for the low level clashes, including the cross border fight against terror, obligors must be trained for the campaign tasks. There must be a single type military service. The level of education of the obligors must be taken into account during the grant of the ranks and seniorities as required by their employment. Paid military service applications must be prevented. Active service period must be 12 months and the reserve service training must be two 15-day periods for the entire reserve service period. The corps other than the Professional Corps must act as the training corps within their staffing and organization.
Obligors must be arranged for the corps in the form of blocks and the initial four months of the service must be basic training; second four months must be squad, team, squadron training and practice; and third four months must be battalion training and practice. Obligors must be charged in the functions of combat, combat support, and combat service support troops, and they must not be employed in headquarters and back offices.Reserve service training must be performed in the form of a troop mobilization and as a combat duty practice. The obligors taken through compulsory training must be evaluated in line with the principle of volunteerism and their competences for the needs of the professional positions and as the procurement resource of the Gendarme General Command fight against terror troops.
Organization of the Unconventional Warfare (GNH) within the All-out Defense organization must not be forgotten. In order to continue the endurance and legitimate state authority in the occupied areas of our Country, GNH must be Organized and trained from the obligor reserves as of the dates of peace. In order not to allow such power to be exploited for the domestic political conflicts, following precautions must be taken.
*Unconventional Warfare elements must in any case be designed in the manner that they will serve behind the enemies and in the regions of the Country that are physically occupied by the armed forces of the enemies. Assignment of duties and performance of such duties by them in the other times, circumstances, and locations than the foregoing must be prevented.
*As a duty of campaign, the personnel who will be in charge in the GNH Organization must be considered as the TSK’s active professional personnel, provisions that will prevent them to be a member of a political party or any society must be enacted, or even the entry of their active political life must be prevented after the termination of their GNH duties.
*The personnel who will be in charge in the GNH Organization must also be prevented from taking assignments in Public Service.
*GNH Teşkilatında görev verilen personel bilgileri ve envanterine sokulan silah ve malzeme kütüklerinin birer sureti Cumhurbaşkanlığı makamında da bulundurulmalıdır. Böylece, hem ideolojik bir kadrolaşma önlenebilir, hem de “b” ve “c” fıkralarında istenen hususlar kontrol edilebilir.
* The copies of the information regarding personnel who will be assigned to tasks in the GNH Organization as well as of their arm and material registrations included in their inventory must be available in the Presidency Office as well. This way, it may be possible to both prevent ideological staffing and control the issues given in the paragraphs “b” and “c.”
*General Staff, Army Commands, Navy Command and Tactic Air Force Headquarters must be converted into command-control Headquarters. Army Houses, military camps, military messes, military service branches, military hospitals, and military courts must be civilized. Armed Forces must be excluded from the politics.
*As the mission of protecting the Republic assumed by our Armed Forces in the years of the establishment of the Republic can be undertaken effectively by the nongovernmental institutions with the consciousness provided by the Legislation, Jurisdiction, and Execution Powers of the State, this duty must now be taken from our Armed Forces. For this purpose, the 35th article of the TSK Internal Service Law must be amended in the manner that it will not be made a legal basis for the TSK to seize the administration ex officio.
*Membership of five Full Generals, including the General Staff President, in the National Security Board, makes it mandatory for the top Control Level and Headquarters of our Armed Forces to be involved with domestic and foreign politics. For correcting such situation that causes negative circumstances, the legislation regarding the constitution and duties of the MGK must be rearranged.
*As the duty of taking precautions against the domestic threats in the National Security Policy Document (MGSB), the plans regarding the domestic security tasks like “Fight against Reactions” and similar ones prepared by the General Staff Presidency renders the TSK a power that makes defense plans against the nation and that perceives a part of it as a threat and an enemy and creates large gaps between the nation and the TSK. Such threats must be perceived as a matter of public order and the duty of eliminating them must not be charged to the Armed Forces. As the Armed Forces personnel are trained in accordance with the military law, use of them in the domestic security duties causes illegal applications against our own citizens. Domestic security and public order duties must be undertaken by the security forces having a legal notion and the Armed Forces must be equipped and trained entirely against foreign forces. Thus, our Armed Forces must be removed from active domestic security duty gradually.
*Supreme Military Council is a consultation body that furnishes opinions regarding our Armed Forces and the Draft Laws, Charters, and Regulations, along with the Strategy, Concept, Goal, and Main Programs. The authorizations granted to this Board by the 1982 Constitution and the amendments made in the Nr. 926 TSK Personnel Law and exclusion of such authorizations from the judicial auditions, causes that YAŞ is perceived as an institution that performs illegal activities and, from time to time arbitrariness. Discipline is the foundation of the army service and what are indispensible for discipline are OBEDIENCE and compliance with LAW. Whatever the reason is, administrative transactions must not be closed for judicial audits. Required arrangements must be made in the Constitution and the Laws for this purpose.
*In the Military Courts whose reason for establishment is the provision of Military Discipline, as the judge assurance has been deteriorated within the military system, the Military Judicial System must be regulated again in the way that judicial unity will be provided but taking the precautions that will prevent the military discipline from being damaged.
*Military schools that act under the Service Commands must be connected to the Ministry of National Defense and the transaction and responsibility of recruitment for army service must be left to the Ministry of National Defense in the case of professional personnel as in the case of obligors. Class schools that contain applied training must be connected to the Service Commands.
*The organic connection of the Gendarme General Command with the General Staff must be discontinued.
COMPULSORY SERVICE PERIOD:
As the military service duty consists of significant tasks and strategic information; for example, it would require trainings like explosives and unconventional warfare; if compulsory service becomes short, the soldiers may resort to unwanted dark ways when they start their civilian lives; and, as this would pose a threat for the country, the compulsory service must be at least 15 years.
The issue of professional military service and paid military service must be assessed as a whole taking the all-out need of defense as well.
*Marine Forces and Air Forces as well as three corps from Land Forces and Private Service Commands must be rendered professional.
*Compulsory military service must be continued and the period of active service must be 12 months and the training for the reserve service period must be one month in total.
*Paid military service application must be prevented.
* TSK must be downsized by converting the General Staff, Army Commands, Navy Command and Tactic Air Force Headquarters into command-control Headquarters and civilizing the Army Houses, military camps, military messes, military service branches, military hospitals, and military courts.
* GNH Organization must be empowered.
* TSK must be kept outside politics.
“The task of the Armed Forces is to protect the Turkish land and the Republic of Turkey determined by the Constitution.”
MILITARY SERVICE IS A HOLY SERVICE FOR THE STATE
IT IS ALSO A RIGHT AS MUCH AS AN OBLIGATION!
NOTE: This project has been drawn up by receiving the opinions of Brigadier General Adnan Tanrıverdi, Honorary President of ASDER (Association of Justice Defenders), in which I act as a founder and member, and of an expert team that has left the TSK.
Assit.Prof.Dr. MEHMET NACİ EFE